Perspective is showing a 3 dimensional space on a flat surface. Perspective is a visual illusion, in the early times like in Ancient Egypt art was seen as flat work, it was mainly meaningful and symbolic but not very visually accurate.
During the Renaissance, the age of “scientific and cultural re-birth” scientists and scholars started doing different kinds of experiments. In the early 15th century a Florentine architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi created a mathematical theory for perspective by doing many optical experiments. He analysed and experimented with visual lines and points of perception, Brunelleschi was then able to understand the science behind perspective. With this work different artists where then able to use a flat surface and create an illusion to make it look like a 3 dimensional space.